With many engine manufacturers confident of meeting Stage V emissions regulations, attention is likely to shift towards performance, productivity and efficiency in other powertrain areas, says Geoff Ashcroft.
This article was originally published in Aggregate Business UK
WITH EUROPEAN UNION STAGE V emissions regulations on the horizon, and many engine makers confident of meeting this legislation, there could soon be a revised focus of attention that sees powertrain efficiency making big strides forward.
Many manufacturers are already starting to turn their attention, and perhaps R&D budgets, towards energy-diverse powertrain technology.
Cummins electric technology
American manufacturer Cummins expects to put its Stage V engines into production by mid-2018, some six months ahead of the scheduled emissions legislation. It also claims to be the only company currently ‘removing’ technology – the omission of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on some of its latest ultra-low emission engines for example – rather than ‘adding’ complexity.
Such confidence has enabled the company to look ahead to the next generation of powertrain solutions including clean diesel, near-zero natural gas and electric power technology. The latter is an area that has taken on greater significance with Cummins’ recent acquisition of battery-expertise company Bremmo.
As a result, the company has already revealed a new powertrain solution for use in full battery electric vehicles (BEV) and range extended electric vehicles (REEV) – the latter incorporating a compact engine-generator.
Currently, these powertrains are suited to shuttle and commuter buses, but offer scope for integration into a diverse range of applications and industries seeking greater operating efficiency from zero-emissions vehicles.
Each standard-size Cummins battery enclosure provides a 70 kilowatt hours (kWh) storage capability. In the BEV application, a total of eight battery enclosures are linked to provide 560kWh of power giving a ‘zero emissions’ range of 36.5 kilometres on a single charge.
The REEV application uses three battery enclosures offering 210kWh and a range of 135 kilometres. As the battery packs deplete to a low state of charge, the vehicle calls upon its 20l horsepower engine-generator to recharge the batteries while continuing to operate with ultra-low emissions capability.
Regenerative braking adds to stored battery power, and electrical energy can be used for vehicle accessories such as air conditioning, power steering and cooling fans.
Advanced electronics on the current engine line-up has simplified the introduction of data management and connectivity, boosting telematics capabilities. This allows operators to check component status, fuel consumption, machine use and service requirements.
Cummins’ solution is the Guidanz App – an Android and Apple iOS compatible data analytic app to provide remote reading of fault codes.
Perkins Engines (a subsidiary of Caterpillar) has also produced an engine app that allows users to access build data, service and parts manuals.
Called Perkins My Engine, it allows users to manually log engine hours to predict service schedules. This app can also be synchronised with an electronic oil cap that Perkins is set to introduce, which cleverly monitors engine hours through vibration frequencies. Available for use on engines from the compact 0307 engine up to the 1206 series, it feeds data directly to the Perkins My Engine app when the user is within Bluetooth range of the engine.
Deutz connected technology
Deutz AG, a German-based internal combustion engine manufacturer, is also looking to make more of connected technology with the launch late last year of its free Deutz Connect service app. Initially, the app offers remote engine diagnostics via smartphone or tablet, and other functions will follow.
The company says it is the first engine maker to be given an EU Stage V certificate, which is applicable to its TCD 6.l engine. And its Stage V engine portfolio is set to grow next year with four new additional in-line engines offering capacities from nine to 18 litres.
The TCD 18.0 will head up the range, with power from this all-new six-cylinder engine reaching 620kW and 3600Nm of torque. This new power unit is said to be targeted at heavy construction equipment with its high power and torque demands.
In addition, Deutz has taken a step closer to the world of electrification, having acquired German electric drive specialist Torqeedo. As part of its E-Deutz strategy, the German engine maker intends to extend its operations to include the development and manufacture of hybrid and all-electric drive system solutions for off-highway applications.
Meanwhile, US-based John Deere Power Systems (JDPS) has turned to new catalyst technologies, emission control calibrations, and new after-treatment solutions with improved package flexibility and easier installation with its EU Stage V compliant engines.
The JC Bamford Excavators’ (UK-based JCB) line-up of Stage V power units extends from 36-448kW from a range of 2.9 litre, 4.5 litre, 6.8 litre, nine litre and 13.5 litre engines.
JDPS says OEMs (original equipment manufacturer producing parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer) are likely to benefit from its continual product improvement that has seen engine performance retained but in a much smaller and lighter package. Typically, this adds up to a 39 percent reduction in size and a 57 percent reduction in weight, most of which has come from revised after-treatment technology.
JCB continues to expand its engine range, and the latest model is an all-new three-litre unit with a power rating at launch
It represents the third engine line for the British maker since production started at JCB Power Systems in Derbyshire, and joins the 4.4, 4.8 and 7.2 litre models.
Called the JCB430 DieselMax, it is said to offer an eight percent reduction in fuel use over the 4.4 litre EcoMax, while being 30 percent lighter.
It meets existing emissions regulations without the need for diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), or selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and is said to be ready for Stage V emissions standards, and will eventually be offered with additional power ratings.
The company says engine mounting interfaces are shared with those of its larger 4.4 and 4.8 litre power units, enabling simple installation in existing JCB-powered equipment.
Volvo and Stage V regulations
Volvo Penta (internal combustion engine manufacturing company owned by AB Volvo), has taken the wraps off five and 13 litre engines that meet Stage V emissions legislation, and cover the 105-565kW sectors. Badged D5 and D13, the two engine platforms use complementary exhaust after-treatment systems made up of a DOC, DPF, SCR, and an ammonia slip catalyst (ASC) to work in harmony to comply with forthcoming EU Stage V regulations.
The company says its Stage V solution has an exhaust temperature lower than the average of many other competitor solutions on the market, and says a lower exhaust temperature suits operating environments where higher exhaust temperatures have health and safety implications.
Volvo Penta adds that its Stage V engines and exhaust after-treatment packages are designed to work together to maximise passive regeneration during normal operation. There is no hightemperature regeneration, because the sulphur regeneration in the SCR catalyst is not required – and only soot regeneration is needed to clean the DPF.
FPT gas power
But diesel is not the only fuel choice available for off-highway power units, and Fiat Powertrain Technologies (FPT was set up in 2005 as a Fiat Group division which includes all the activities related to powertrains and transmissions) has already hinted at what might be coming over the horizon based on its on-highway experiences with truck maker Iveco.
And that is because FPT has created the Cursor 13 NP to power the Stralis model in Iveco’s heavy truck range. This 343kW ‘natural power’ engine is one that is based on the 13 litre diesel-fuelled Cursor 13 power unit, but it has been re-engineered into a spark ignition engine – identical to the operating principles of a petrol-powered engine.
FPT claims it is a direct match for the 343kW diesel-powered cursor 13 engine, though the NP version brings much lower running costs, simpler maintenance, lower noise levels and near-zero emissions.
It can be fuelled by either liquefied natural gas (LNG) or compressed natural gas (CNG). Importantly, neither of these fuels require a DPF, DOC, cooled EGR or the addition of an exhaust after-treatment catalyst, which dramatically simplifies the engine architecture and installation. The only external addition to the engine is a threeway exhaust catalyst, similar to that found on a petrol engine, and dealing with carbon monoxide produced from the fuel burn.
FPT has already had a lot of success with the smaller capacity, and lower powered Cursor 9 NP engine. The arrival of the
13-litre has finally put the gas-powered engines on a par with their diesel counterparts.
Operating temperatures are typically 30 percent higher than the diesel engine, so FPT has given the Cursor 13 NP a new cylinder head constructed of graphite iron to help valve and valve seat lubricity. It also gains a revised exhaust manifold and turbocharger – the latter getting ball bearings and a watercooled core.
The NP engine also uses multi-point fuel injection, feeding gas directly into each cylinder, on the back of the intake valve.
However, there are challenges for operators concerning the accessibility of the two fuels, and the practicality of storing
LNG is cryogenic and its liquefied state requires storage within insulated tanks at nine bars pressure. CNG on the other hand is stored in high pressure vessels from 20-200 bars.