One of the first companies to realize the benefits an elevating scraper could offer the smaller earthmoving contractor was International Harvester, which introduced the model E200 in 1966. By Richard Campbell
Fast, maneuverable and legally roadable just about anywhere, the nine cubic yard E200 elevating scraper was sold in substantial numbers in the USA and around the world.
A completely original design from nose to tail, the E200 was powered by International’s DT-361 6-cylinder inline turbocharged diesel, producing 135 flywheel horsepower.
As with other International scrapers of the time, the transmission was supplied by Twin-Disc and was a simple two-speed powershift design with high and low ratios selected automatically, effectively giving the machine four speeds forward with a single reverse range.
A loaded E200 could motor along at a respectable 24 miles per hour.
The E200 featured an exceptionally cleanly-designed tractor unit, with no wasted space or sheet metal, and outstanding visibility for the operator, who was centrally situated on the machine. (Your writer has only operated one other small elevator in which the visibility was as good as on the E200, a Wabco 101F).
A full set of gauges was set in a rudimentary instrument panel, which also housed the steering column and powershift range selector, while the bowl control levers were placed within easy reach to the operator’s right.
Identical expanding shoe brakes were fitted to both axles, with a caliper type parking brake on the transmission output shaft.
Operator comforts could best be described as minimalist, with only a suspension seat and windshield, although later production machines featured a ROPS structure.
Due to the almost anorexic design of the E200’s tractor unit, access to most major components for servicing was comparatively easy compared to its competitors.
The bowl was equipped with a 14-flight, hydraulically powered, single speed elevator. International was one of the first elevating scraper manufacturers to directly mount the elevator drive motor to the elevator gearbox, thereby doing away with the complex extension drive shafts and PTO arrangements of the competition.
A hydraulic check valve held the cutting edge floor in place during loading.
Teeth could be fitted to the cutting edge to assist in breaking up hard soil making it easier for the elevator to load. However, trim to final grade was impossible in this configuration!
Ejection was accomplished in the usual elevating scraper fashion – sliding floor and bulldozer ejector with the cutting edge acting as a strike off blade.
Shortly after the E200 was introduced, International Harvester began production of an 11 cubic yard machine known as the E211. Along with its increased capacity, the E211 featured a more powerful engine and transmission. This machine was marketed alongside the E200 for those contractors who required slightly larger payloads. The E211 ultimately replaced the E200 in International’s catalogue in 1977.
The E211 was renamed the 412 when International revamped its numbering system in the late 1970s and continued in production (as the 412B) right through the Dresser takeover of International Harvester’s construction division.
The New Zealand Connection
At least 12 International E200 elevating scrapers were imported by International Harvester (NZ) Ltd and were put to use throughout the country, mostly employed on housing subdivisional work. Some are still in operation.
It would appear that New Zealand contractors preferred International’s contemporary (and slightly larger) E211 as sales of these machines were significantly higher.
A word about the elevating scraper
The original concept of the self loading elevating scraper was developed in Texas in the late 1950s by a company called Hancock (later part of the huge Clark/Michigan organisation).
It was conceived as a land leveling tool for tracts of agricultural land that were to be irrigated and was, in its initial form, a towed scraper drawn by a fourwheel drive agricultural tractor.
The first company to see the potential of, and market an effective self-propelled elevating scraper designed for construction earthmoving, was John Deere, followed soon after by LeTourneau-Westinghouse (Wabco).
These two companies vied for business until International came along with their E200.
Caterpillar was a very late starter in the small elevating scraper market, not introducing its 11 cubic yard model 613 until 1969.
Brief Specifications – International E200
Engine: International DT-361, six-cylinder, turbocharged, 135hp
Transmission: Twin-Disc model TT2220, 4F, 1R
Final Drive: Floating planetary
Top Speed: 24 mph
Steering: Full hydraulic, 90 degrees each way
Brakes: Expanding shoe
Capacity: Nine cubic yards
Elevator: Full hydraulic operation, single speed with reverse
Turning Circle: 26’1”
Operating Weight: 11.7 tons (empty)