A direct descendant of the International Harvester model E200 elevating scraper, the International 412 was a considerably refined offspring. By Richard Campbell
Released for sale in 1975, the International 412 featured more options, more capacity and more power, while retaining the nimbleness and versatility of its predecessor (see Contractor, August 2007).
International chose its DT-466 diesel for the 412. Quite a step up from the IH DT-361 used in the E200, the DT-466 was a six-cylinder, inline turbocharged diesel engine which produced 150 horsepower in this application. It was also used in other pieces of International machinery, notably the 433 and 444 tandem powered scrapers as well as a couple of Hough’s PayLoaders, which helped with parts commonality.
A Twin-Disc full powershift transmission provided four forward and one reverse speeds with first gear being particularly low to give added rimpull when loading. Planetary final drives and a heavy duty differential finished off the power train and permitted a top speed of up to 25 miles an hour. Apart from the transmission, the entire drive train was designed and built by International.
At only eight feet (2.44 metres) wide and with an empty weight of 14 tons, the 412 was legally roadable, enhancing its flexibility and marketing potential to potential buyers.
Steering followed traditional International lines and was fully hydraulic, using twin double acting cylinders mounted on the gooseneck allowing 90 degree turns to right and left.
Air over hydraulic activated shoe brakes were standard on both axles as were the 23.5 x 25 tyres the machine rode on.
One thing that did not change from the earlier model E200 was the great visibility the operator enjoyed from his seat. Although the 412 was quite narrow in profile, all the controls in the operator’s compartment were well laid out and in a logical pattern.
The 412 came standard with a ROPS structure and a ROPS cab could be specified at the customer’s request. This came with a heater and windshield wiper. An air suspension seat (usually Milsco) was standard although the author has seen some Dressser badged examples with Bostrum seats. Air conditioning was also offered as an option.
The bowl of the 412 was rated at 11 cubic yards, a two cubic yard increase over the former model E200. Constructed of reinforced steel plate with box section gussets, the bowl was very strong and well designed. Operation was all hydraulic including the elevator motor, which had two forward speeds and one reverse.
The entire elevator assembly was spring dampened to control loading shocks.
International employed a sliding floor and doze out ejection system with the cutting edge incorporated into the leading edge of the floor. This acted as a strike off plate for trimming up the fill. Only International and Caterpillar used this kind of cutting edge on their elevating scrapers, other manufacturers electing to use a fixed cutting edge. Five removable cutting edge teeth could be bolted to the center cutting edge to assist in breaking up hard packed soil for easier loading.
During 1978 the 412 received some system upgrades and most noticeably, a de-rating of the IH DT-466 engines’ horsepower output – down to 125 at the flywheel. This was done in order to lengthen the engine’s life expectancy between overhauls. Empty weight had also changed rising to 15 tons.
As a result of these changes International re-designated the machine the 412B.
The only scraper kept in production through the Dresser takeover of International Harvester, the 412B was sold as a Dresser-badged machine before finally being discontinued around 1990.
A popular machine with owners and operators alike total production of the 412 and 412B was in excess of 3000 machines
It was the final and most successful scraper ever to be produced by International Harvester and also the last remaining competition for the Caterpillar 613.
The New Zealand connection
It is not known how many International 412 and 412Bs were imported into New Zealand. However, as in the United States, Asia and Europe, the machine was very popular resulting in plenty of sales.
Examples could be found throughout New Zealand particularly in the South Island and Bay of Plenty where they found use in irrigation, housing subdivisions, land development and stripping applications. Operational examples can still be found.
Brief specifications – International 412
Engine: International DT-466, six-cylinder turbocharged diesel rated at 150 fwhp.
Transmission: Twin-Disc four-speed powershift with integral torque converter.
Brakes: Expanding shoe type, air actuated.
Steering: Fully hydraulic, two cylinder operation, 90° swing left and right.
Tyres: 23.5 x 25 standard.
Top Speed: 25 mph.
Turning Circle: 26’ 2”.
Capacity: 11 cubic yards.
Elevator: Hydraulically driven with two speeds.
No. of Flights: 16.
Overall Length: 32’ 6”.
Operating Weight: 14 tons (empty) 26 tons (loaded).