Classic Machines Scrapers

Classic Machines: International 295 Payscraper

Entering the market in the early 1960s, International’s technically advanced 295 Payscraper replaced the 2T-75. The machine underwent an extensive redesign in the late ‘60s, greatly improving its power and steering. By Richard Campbell.

International Harvester introduced its model 295 Payscraper to replace the former model 2T-75, which had been a good seller for International.

However, in the light of rapidly advancing technology the 2T-75 was not entirely satisfactory so International began the design of a totally new machine.

Using their recently developed IH model DT-817T engine, the 295 was put into mass production during 1962.

The International DT-817 was a six-cylinder, in-line, turbocharged diesel, rated at a respectable 375 horsepower and was coupled to an Allison 4-speed powershift transmission. This gave the 295 a top speed of approximately 26 miles per hour.

The 295 utilised an unusual steering method, having a fixed king pin joining the tractor and scraper sections with a ring gear at its base. Two hydraulic steering cylinders with teeth cut into their extended spears acted on the ring gear to turn the machine 90° right or left.

Not the great idea that the International designers had envisaged, this steering system was subject to rapid wear resulting in the machine “wandering” and requiring constant steering corrections on the part of the operator. This problem was resolved with the introduction of the revised model 295B, more of this machine later.

The bowl was very similar to the type used on the model 495 Payscraper and was entirely cable controlled. It held 24 cubic yards struck and 31 cubic yards heaped.

As was the case with their model 495 scraper, the cable control system was redesigned quite early in the machine’s production run, resulting in two distinctly different looking bowl assemblies. During this redesign, International also increased the heaped capacity of the bowl (by sideboarding) to 34 cubic yards.

The cable control unit, mounted on the back of the tractor’s main case, was an Isaacson design, manufactured by International Harvester.

The 295 Payscraper was aggressively marketed by International and as many were exported as were sold on the US domestic market.

The 295B

After undergoing an extensive redesign, the improved model 295B was released in 1968.

This featured more horsepower (achieved by aftercooling the DT-817 engine), a six-speed Allison or 11-speed Twin Disc powershift transmission and a completely new hydraulic steering system based on the Euclid ‘follow up’ system which was a proven, reliable design.

The bowl was now completely hydraulically operated and was rated at 24 cubic yards struck and 32 cubic yards heaped.

International also produced an elevating scraper version known as the E295, rated at 32 cubic yards capacity. However, this machine was only manufactured for 3½ years.

Competing in the same size class as the Caterpillar 631, Euclid S-24, Allis-Chalmers TS460, Michigan 310 and Wabco 339, the International 295B was manufactured up until 1974 when the ‘95’ series was discontinued.

International has not produced scraper of that size since.

The New Zealand Connection.

A number of International 295s were imported into New Zealand during the 1950s, the largest owner being Earthmovers Waikato.

Other owners included NZ Roadmakers and the (then) Ministry of Works, which also imported some of the later model 295Bs for use in the Waitaki Basin hydro project.

As far as survivors go, the earlier Earthmovers Waikato machines were traded in the early 1970s and sold in Wellington to John Pavan Contracting.

These were used with a host of other esoteric equipment on a housing subdivision in Churton Park, Wellington.

Their ultimate fate is unknown and I would be interested in hearing from anyone who has pictures of these machines in action.

As for the 295Bs, these were bought at ex-Ministry of Works auctions by several contractors, including Bakers of Cambridge, and several still exist.

Brief Specifications – International 295 (1964 version)

Engine:                      I.H. DT-817, 6 cylinder, inline, turbocharged, 375 hp

Transmission:           Allison CLT44 series 4 speed powershift

Top Speed:                26 mph

Steering:                   Full Hydraulic, 90° each way

Brakes:                      Expanding shoe type, all 4 wheels

Standard Tyre:         33.5×25

Length:                      47’4”

Width:                        11’8”

Height:                       12’4”

Operating Weight:   36 tons

International-Harvester's 295 PayScraper

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